It is central to Kim Scott’s Benang (1999) that in the early years of white settlement around ‘Gebalup’ (Ravensthorpe, WA) the matriarch Fanny (Benang) and her white husband Sandy Mason witness a massacre of Fanny’s people gathered around the homestead of the ‘Done’ family.
Not far from the homestead Fanny – cautiously peering from the load, peeking over bales – saw a small group of men women children, running and falling before station men on horseback. (1999, p.174)
… [Sandy] could see figures leaping to their feet, helping one another up, running. And there were voices calling, calling. People fell, were shot. Were shot….
Flames and explosions leapt from beyond the outstretched arms of a man beside him. A Winchester, almost the very latest thing. The man bent over the bodies, lunging and hacking, faceless in the grim darkness.
‘They understand this.’ (1999, p.186)
The knowledge of the deaths and the scattered bones creates an ‘exclusion zone’ to which the narrator is taken by Fanny’s grandsons many years later.
Scott wrote Benang, a fictionalised account of his search for his Noongar ancestry, from bits and pieces of stories and official records. In Kayang & Me (2005), which he co-wrote with Noongar elder, Hazel Brown, he recounts how Benang was just about done when he met Aunty Hazel, and how they turned out to be related, both descendants of Fanny Mason’s family. Of the massacre, Aunty Hazel writes:
Most of my grandmother Monkey’s family were massacred some time after 1880 by white people at a place called Cocanarup , a few miles from the Ravensthorpe townsite. (2005, p.10)
Cocanarup was a property taken up by the Dunn brothers in 1872 as a sheep run. In 1880 John Dunn was killed by spearing, by Granny Monkey’s brother, Yandawalla, for his part in raping a 13 yo Noongar girl. Yandawalla (aka Yangalla) was subsequently tried for murder and acquitted. There was trouble over the next couple of years as Noongars raided the property for sheep and the Dunn’s retaliated. It seems they eventually got a permit “to kill the seventeen people that were residents of that place.” However, unknownst to them there was a meeting of Noongars nearby from the surrounding districts of Hopetoun and Jerdacuttup, to discuss initiations and marriages and so “there was over thirty people that were killed down there.” (2005, p.65)
The oral history passed down to Aunty Hazel is backed up by white histories. Scott reports Marion Brockway as writing in The Dunns of Cocaranup, Early Days (1970):
Terrible stories abound, but cannot be verified, of the vengeance exacted by John’s brothers on the Nyungars. One story is that a number of Aborigines were killed and buried in a mass grave near John’s grave, the site being marked by a circle of posts. The rest of the Nyungars in the vicinity were chased eastward, the Dunns poisoning the waterholes on the way back, to prevent them returning. (2005, p.70).
And Cleve Hassell in his 1973 memoir of his own well-known early settler family “mentions that the three remaining Dunn brothers ‘declared war’ and took it in turns to go shooting Noongars while one was left at home with their sister. He writes that a great many natives were shot.” (2005, p.71)
I got in touch with Professor Scott (Kim Scott is Professor of Writing at Curtin Uni.) and he was kind enough to send me some extra material, photos and extracts from newspapers. These included a full account of Yangalla’s trial, but this summary from the South Australian Register of 26 Nov., 1881 will suffice: “The native Yangala, tried recently for the murder of Mr. John Dunn, has been acquitted owing to the unsatisfactory manner in which the evidence of the black witness was interpreted.” I have commented previously that colonial officialdom often had a much more enlightened attitude towards Aborigines than did settlers at the ‘frontier’. In the trial –presumably in the Perth Supreme Court – His Honour (not named) was pretty sharp with the police over the way they took ‘voluntary’ statements and the Attorney General was quick to withdraw the evidence so obtained.
The following year, in the West Australian of 30 May, 1882 their Albany correspondent reports:
Great dissatisfaction is being expressed by the settlers to the Eastward, more especially by the Messrs. Dunn Bros., as to the want of proper police protection. Most of your readers will remember the painful circumstances of Mr. John Dunn’s death, and the acquittal of the supposed murderers. Since that time it has transpired that the natives did not intend to murder Mr. J. Dunn, but another brother… it is now believed that they still intend to murder the other brother when an opportunity arises, which benevolent intention they will probably carry out if some steps are not taken to prevent them.
In the same paper, three years later on 25 Sept., 1885 it is reported that James Dunn had been attacked on the 15th and on the following day Robert Dunn “went out to ascertain the intentions and strength of the natives. He met forty blacks coming towards the station who immediately attacked him.” Dunn fired, killing one, the Noongars retreated pursued by Dunn who “killed one and wounded several.”
There’s an interview with Robert Dunn, many years later, in the (Perth) Sunday Times of 20 May 1928 but it’s mostly ‘nigger’ this and ‘nigger’ that and doesn’t add much to the account.
Finally, the following appeared in the Western Mail of 17 Oct 1935 under the heading The Skull at Carracarrup, ‘eight miles SSW of Ravensthorpe’ by WIPECO of Leonora who ‘was told the story by Mr. Walter Dunn (now deceased)’:
[After John Dunn’s death] The remaining members on the station were then granted licence to shoot the natives for a period of one month, during which time the fullest advantage was taken of the privilege. Natives were shot from the station through Lime Kiln Flat, Manjitup and down to where Ravensthorpe is now situated. In the course of their guerrilla warfare, the whites arrived one day at the Carracarrup Rock Hole, and, knowing it was a watering place for the blacks, they crept quietly over the hill until they could peer down into the hole. There they saw two natives who had just risen from drinking. Two shots broke the stillness of the gorge and two dusky souls were sent home to their Maker. The bodies were left lying at the rock hole where they dropped as a grim reminder to the rest of the tribe of the white man’s retribution.
The Kukenarup memorial, on the South Coast Highway 15 km west of Ravensthorpe overlooks to the south the Cocanarup homestead and massacre site. The memorial, representing Noongar totems, Wedge Tailed Eagles and Mallee Fowl, includes the words:
This area of country has a harsh, complex and sometimes contradictory history. Many Noongar people were killed here, and all that death and the apartheid-like 20th century legislation meant many of our families were never able to return and reconcile themselves to what had happened.
The fiction of Terra Nullius has meant that the Cocanarup and similar massacres, not to mention all the deaths of Indigenous people from mistreatment and deprivation of resources, have too often been whitewashed out of official histories. We can only hope our wilful forgetting is at long last in the process of being reversed, for without knowledge and then acknowledgement, there cannot be Reconciliation.
See also: Bob Howard, Noongar Resistance on the South Coast 1830-1890 (here)
For further information you should search on ‘Cocanarup’, ‘Kukenarup’, Kocanarup’ and ‘Ravensthorpe Massacre’.
Google Map (here)
Nov. 2019: Massacre Map updated to include WA (here)
My reviews of Kim Scott’s novels:
True Country, 1993 (here)
Benang, 1999 (here)
Kayang and Me, 2005 (here)
That Deadman Dance, 2010 (here)
Taboo, 2017 (here)
Australian Genocide, Sydney NSW, 1779 (here)
The ‘Battle’ of Pinjarra, Pinjarra WA, 1834 (here)
Wardandi Massacre, Wonnerup/Lake Mininup WA, 1841 (here)
Cocanarup (Kukenarup) Massacre, Cocanarup Station, Ravensthorpe WA, 1880s (here)
Kimberley Massacres, 1886-1924 (here)
also in WA:
Flying Foam Massacre, in the Pilbara, 1868 (here)
Forrest River massacres, 1926 (Wiki here)
23 thoughts on “The Cocanarup Massacre”
Wow. This is such an important post, I don’t know what to say here, only that we need more of this unveiling of what really went on. History has, indeed, been whitewashed. I can’t even begin to comprehend the pain and terror the Noongar must have gone through. It’s heartbreaking…
It’s interesting that Scott, and writers before him like Thea Astley have presented these ghastly histories in fiction but we (whites) do not seem to have internalised them.
Yes, I’ve just read Raining in Mango, which mentions a massacre several times, but it’s done in such a way that if you’re not reading carefully you could miss the references. I wondered how much of that was deliberate. The book was written in 1987, which wasn’t a terribly enlightened time as I recall.
Official attitudes are improving (they’d have to! 1987 was Bjelke Petersen’s last year, from memory) but I’ve worked in the back blocks of Qld and WA off and on since 1972 and I think racism is as rife as ever.
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Well done, Bill.
This is uncomfortable reading, but I’m glad it’s out there for people to know about.
When I first searched on Cocanarup I thought I would not be able to do much more than paraphrase Scott, so I am very glad for the material he sent me. It made the story that much harder to ignore.
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He’s such a nice man. I met him at the Miles Franklin Awards night when he won it for That Deadman Dance, and was very surprised that he remembered me when we met again at the Vic Premier’s Awards. So I’m not surprised that he helped you with extra materials, he’s that kind of nice person!
Nice authors are a problem – how do you criticise them?
[…] the massacre of her family’s ancestors near Ravensthorpe (see my post The Cocanarup Massacre, here) which is also important in Scott’s writing, particularly Benang and Kayang and Me (reviews […]
[…] in Benang (1999), and political in that he uses the return of the Wirlomin to the site of the Cocanarup Massacre and the reaction of the current (fictionalised) owners of Kocanarup Station as a metaphor for how […]
[…] also: The Cocanarup Massacre, my post based on Kim Scott’s source material (here) The Pinjarra Massacre (here) Lisa at ANZLL posted her impressions on first reading Benang (here) […]
[…] also: The Cocanarup Massacre, my post based on Kim Scott’s source material (here) The Pinjarra Massacre (here) My reviews of Kim Scott’s other works – True Country, 1993 (here) […]
[…] Cocanarup Massacre, my post based on Kim Scott’s source material (here) The Pinjarra Massacre […]
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Very interesting, thanks for the link.
These massacres, and it seems they were everywhere, are still largely ignored by white society.
[…] offsider is Indigenous and there is a nod to the Cocanarup Massacre and the possibility of a non-white history for Hopetoun and […]
[…] THE WESTERN AUSTRALIAN JOURNAL, SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 22, 1834. On Wednesday last, Captain Daniell of H. M. 21st Regt, returned to head-quarters with a portion of the detachment stationed at the Murray, ac- companied by Mr. Norcott, Superintendent of police, and two of the Mounted Police, as it has not been considered necessary to retain so large a force at that station any longer. A constant patrol has been kept up in the neighbourhood of the settlement at Peel Town since the affair with the Natives at Pinjarra, and several parties have con- tinued to scour the country in various directions ; the only party, however, which traversed the country in the immediate vicinity of the scene of action was directed by Captain Daniell, accom- panied by Lieutenant Armstrong of the 21st Regt., Mr. Norcott, and Mr. Peel, notwithstanding the unfavorable state of the weather which, it may be remembered, we had during the past and previous week. On arriving at Pinjarra, they found that the bodies of the natives who were killed, were all decently interred, in one spot there being three graves of large dimensions, about twelve feet each in length, supposed to contain the members of separate families, and at a short distance from them were the graves of thirteen men. The party was unable to reach the quarter where the heavi- est firing took place, owing to the brooks being much swollen, from the incessant rains; but it was generally believed, that in this spot, also, there were several graves,—and but one opinion prevails, that, during the night after the encounter, the natives returned and buried their dead, in the manner we have described. Captain Daniell’s party bivouacked within 400 yards of the scene of action, and returned to their quarters, at Peel Town, after a three day’s march, without crossing any recent traces of the natives. The vicinity of the Canning River, it is thought, will be visited by the remnant of this obnoxious tribe ; and, indeed, a rumour has reached us, com- ing, we believe, from the natives of the Swan tribes, that Galute, the villain who has been the subject of frequent notice in our columns, has speared two natives of their tribe, in consequence of the death of one of his women, who happened to receive a fatal shot in the affray. see also: Wardandi Massacre, Wonnerup/Lake Mininup WA, 1841 (here) Cocanarup (Kukenarup) Massacre, Cocanarup Station, Ravensthorpe WA, 1880s (here) […]
[…] see also: Every Mother’s Son is Guilty (review) Pinjarra Massacre, 1834 (here) Wardandi Massacre, Wonnerup/Lake Mininup WA, 1841 (here) Cocanarup (Kukenarup) Massacre, Ravensthorpe WA, 1880s (here) […]
When I started Benang last week, I was struck by the name – Ernest Solomon SCAT – and wondered if this was autofiction with slightly changed names. I seemed to recall reading something that said that this was so, but nothing I had googled really confirmed this…until I reread this post! I knew I had read it somewhere!
I have no idea how I’m going to review this book – I may just end up linking everyone back to your posts 🙂
Nice of you to say so but I’m afraid the bloggers’ code obliges you to use your own words. I’d be very happy though for you to link to this post at the end.
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[…] @The Australian Legend has already done the research post on the Cocanarup Massacre here. An author bio post is a possibility, but I often feel awkward digging into the online life story […]
[…] and his family’s experience of the actual, not invented (or “composite”), Cocanarup Massacre. Even leaving aside the magnificence of Scott’s language compared with Winch’s, the way […]