Player Piano, Kurt Vonnegut


Player Piano (1952) was the first of Kurt Vonnegut’s 14 novels. His most famous, Slaughterhouse-Five (1969) which includes an account of the fire bombing of Dresden, which Vonnegut himself experienced as a POW, was, like Catch 22, an anti-war WWII novel taken up by the anti-Vietnam War movement. This one, however, ahead of its times, is anti-automation.

Vonnegut (1922-2007) was an important American author, writing Science Fiction mostly, though I think he is often claimed as a ‘cross-over’ into ordinary fiction Certainly he was no where near as prolific as some ‘pulp’ SF writers, but he was able to support himself and his young family after the War, writing short fiction for magazines.

I am reviewing Player Piano because I recently listened to it, and because its theme of man being replaced by machines is topical today – more topical today than when it was written probably. I had hoped I would find a paper copy on my shelves of old paperback SF, or failing that in one of my local libraries, but no luck. However, I did find that I owned a biography, or rather as I found when I began to read it, a ‘critical appreciation’, Peter J Reed’s Kurt Vonnegut Jr (1972).

The player piano of the title is coin operated and plays jazz tunes in a bar. It is incidental to the story but the fact that it plays itself – the keys are depressed by a rotating piano roll (wiki) – acts as a metaphor for workerless factories.

The novel is set not so much in a near future (future to 1952 that is) as in an alternative ‘present’. The society and technology are clearly of the 1950s. The difference is that after a major war in which tactical nuclear weapons were used, industry has been reorganized for the sake of efficiency on, although Vonnegut is at pains to ignore it, soviet central planning lines. Engineers are in charge and workers are progressively being replaced by machines. Consequently society is divided into well-off technocrats and a vast underclass who if they do not join the army, or invent little businesses for themselves, are given make-work in Reclamation and Re-construction (‘Reeks and Wrecks’).

All engineers and managers must have a PhD and school leavers are ruthlessly graded by machines into the few going on to College and the rest, though it helps to have a father in a position to ease your way through school and into plum positions. This is the 1950s, so it goes almost without saying that women PhD’s are in secretarial positions for that brief time until they become homemakers.

The story is located in (the fictitious) Illium, NY which Vonnegut used in a number of his novels (Wiki). Illium is probably based on Schenectady, NY, home of the General Electric plant where Vonnegut was at the time a PR writer, and which in turn was a model for the Illium Works. As Schenectady is divided by the Mohawk River so Illium is by the Iriquois, with the Illium Works and senior employees on one side and the underclass – mostly former workers – on the other, and one highly symbolic bridge separating rather than joining them.

Like much SF of this period Player Piano is bursting with ideas, but the characterisations and the writing are rather flat. The central character is Dr Paul Proteus, Illium Works Manager, whose father was “the nation’s first National Industrial, Commercial, Communications, Foodstuffs and Resources Director, a position approached in importance only by the presidency of the United States”. He is seemingly happily married to Anita, his former secretary, and in line at a young age for promotion to area manager, Pittsburgh. However, he is dissatisfied with his role in forcing out of their jobs men who were good at, and enjoyed, their work.

He starts going to a bar on the wrong side of the river where he meets out of work anthropologist James Lasher who is now a chaplain with Reeks and Wrecks. And he becomes interested in and eventually buys an old farm – no electricity, no plumbing – that has a preservation order on it and a grumpy old caretaker who turns out to be the last in line of the original owners.

His old friend and workmate Ed Finnerty, a hippyish heavy drinking bachelor, comes to stay just as Anita is planning a dinner with Paul’s boss (and friend of his late father). The dinner is a disaster. Finnerty disappears and is soon rumoured to be prominent in the Ghost Shirt Society of unemployed rebels (the idea of ‘Luddites‘ is all through this book though the word is never used). Dr Lawson Sheppard, Paul’s 2IC, is constantly attempting to undermine him and, as Paul spends more and more time at the bar and on his farm, Sheppard begins to visit Anita, until at a weekend retreat for senior managers from around the US, Sheppard is offered Pittsburgh, and has it off with Anita in the bushes, while Paul is shunted sideways on a special assignment to infiltrate the Ghost Shirts.

Paul soon finds himself on the national organizing committee, with Lasher and Finnerty, of an uprising to take back the factories. The uprising is initially successful in Illium and a couple of other cities, but Vonnegut is not a proponent of revolutions and has the uprisings descend into indiscriminate destruction and drunkenness, with the leadership group surrendering to the Army.

There is a subplot involving a ‘Shah’ being shown around America by Dr Halyard of the State Department, which acts as a device for describing this ‘future’ society where the minimum accommodation is an apartment with prefabricated steel walls and automatic washing machines and vacuum cleaners; and an amusing sub subplot where Dr Halyard incurs someone’s displeasure and loses his PhD and therefore his status because he can’t prove he completed the phys ed unit in his bachelors degree.

Reed takes four or five pages to get this far then another 27 pages analyzing Vonnegut’s style and issues that Player Piano raises. From:

The central conflict in the novel is between the machine and the human, between those forces which have brought about and espouse automation and those which affirm the dignity of man, the warmth and fallibility of his animal being.

Reed finally gets to:

Player Piano, for all its warnings and weariness and nostalgia, remains a funny book. but the mixture of pain and humour results in the kind of comedy which arises when people try to make light of frightening situations, so that here, too, the novel sustains its peculiar tension.

It is ironic that this book was written at a time when the industrial heart of America would go on for another half century employing millions of workers producing steel, automobiles, whitegoods, machinery of all types. Only now in this new century (already one sixth over) are automation and robotics taking over in a big way. Here in backwater WA, iron ore trains, 200 tonne dump trucks and loaders already operate without drivers  – which is why ongoing record iron ore exports are having no upward effect on wages; and the two biggest manufacturers, Mercedes and Volvo have driverless highway trucks well underway as well. However, Vonnegut’s idea of make-work and subsidised housing for all the displaced workers, the least that he thought a US government would provide, is these days not even considered. The Market will provide.


Kurt Vonnegut, Player Piano, first pub. 1952. Audio version: Brilliance Audio, 2008, read by Christian Rummel

Peter J Reed, Kurt Vonnegut Jr, Writers for the 70’s, Warner Books, New York, 1972



14 thoughts on “Player Piano, Kurt Vonnegut

  1. Ha! I have had one of those player pianos for forty years, and I think it dates from the turn of the previous century. It belonged to the (very old) Misses McIndoe who lived two doors up from us in Melby Avenue, and they sold it to us when they went back to Scotland to die ‘at home’, though they had lived here for decades. By rights this third piano should have been my younger sister’s because it was bought so that we all had one each, but I was the only one who really loved the piano and it had the best tone so I abandoned the other two and it became mine. I passed HSC piano by pounding its keys for three hours a day and I have it still. The player bellows need restoring: it produces a good workout for the thighs but not much sound, and I suspect that the piano rolls probably have silverfish holese as well by now because they are in a hard-to-reach cupboard. But I consider it a friendly piece of automation – it was designed so that families could gather round for a singalong even if no one could play the piano, very handy for nouveau riche Australians too poor to have lessons in childhood but wanting the middle-class status symbol of cultchure.

    Liked by 1 person

  2. Love Lisa’s story. There is a piano in my family that resulted in an inheritance court case! It belonged to my maternal grandfather’s parents, and resulted in a split in the family. Meanwhile, just this week, we have finally sold the piano that belonged to my aunt who died in October 2015. It was a quality piano and, although she told the my co-executor that she’d like to leave it to our daughter, she hadn’t completed her will before she died, so we decided, after much consultation, to sell it. It was the right decision.

    Anyhow, I enjoyed your post. I’ve only read one Vonnegut – not Slaughterhouse Five but Cat’s cradle. I liked it. I guess books like this – ideas books – don’t always have “rounded characters”? I’m not sure that it matters always to the enjoyment of the novel if the writing is good and the ideas interesting?


    • Thank you both for your piano stories. No pianos in my family, more’s the pity.
      I find Vonnegut’s flat writing style very familiar and I think it must have been common in 50s and 60s SF. You make me think that I have probably, gradually moved from preferring ideas based writing to character based writing over these past five decades.

      Liked by 1 person

      • Interesting observation re writing style. You are probably right, not that I’ve read a lot of that era’s SF.

        As for ideas-based versus character-based writing, I’d say that the former appeals to my analytical mind, while the latter, while it can also appeal to the analytical mind also appeals to the emotions. And we all (well, most of us) find that engaging don’t we?


  3. I’ve read most of Vonnegut’s books (though not recently) but can’t remember much about PP apart from it wasn’t one of his best. He developed a style that I think of as ‘Dr Seuss for adults’. Bluebeard is one of my favourites and I’d recommend it. Only his early books were really sci-fi but the tag of sci-fi writer got stuck to him.


    • I’m stuck with reading the Lorax about once a week. I imagine it would be a very addictive style for a writer. I don’t know Bluebeard so I’ve been reading up on it. Sounds interesting. SF is a very difficult tag to drop. PK Dick for instance does not seem to get the recognition that he should as an early post-modernist and it seeks Vonnegut attempted the same transition, though maybe with more popular recognition.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. I swear it was big news yesterday or the day before that people in the tech industry were getting fired because they had done their jobs so well that they weren’t needed anymore! You’re review has me thinking about it again. Problem? I can’t find signs of the news story anywhere. Maybe Google buried it out of shame.

    My favorite Vonnegut is Breakfast of Champions, and I’m also a big fan of Tom Robbins, a contemporary of Vonnegut with a similar silly style.


    • My favourite might be The Sirens of Titan, but it’s all so long ago! Here the big mining companies paid miners $200 or $300,000 pa so that they didn’t need unions, then automated everything so now we have record exports and bugger all employment.


  5. Hello 2 big themes to add 1- that the society is effectively socialist with all heath care, and needs taken care of, including tvs – the argument here was that none of those things made the general /other side of the river people happy, although as my book club pointed out the only people Paul meets is at a bar, the other 95 # and families are prob at home stoked and happy.
    2 the absence of women and any other racial demographic from the high IQ elite is a travesty that it’s hard to pass over, it was the 50s and women while few were already heading various university departments, so the blanket exclusion from the novel is markedly pro patriarchal

    PS I had a piano!! And you gave it away in exchange for babysitting-i still hold the grudge.


    • I’m glad you got round to my review and I’m sorry for so many things I guess I can add the piano to the list. I did say that the economy was organised on “soviet central planning lines”. I take the point about the non-drinking “95%”, though people are usually happy despite rather than because of their material circumstances, and large numbers joined in the revolt, in Illium anyway.

      I don’t know Vonnegut well enough to judge whether the white, male elite of this story was a reflection of Vonnegut’s own views about society; or was intended ironically – he was after all describing a dystopia. The fact is the 1950s was patriachal, and in a deliberate way, in reaction, in my opinion, to the increasing freedom of women during the first half of the century, and this is the reason the rebellions of “the sixties” were so explosive.

      Your book club chose a good book to discuss.


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